Agent Orange (05:37)
During the Vietnam War, U.S. forces deploy over 20 million gallons of defoliant, claiming it does not violate international law. Experts discuss the naming of the chemical compound and mixing toxins to create the herbicide.
Orange Herbicide Exposure (03:17)
Wildlife has diminished in areas of use; herbicides are part of forestry practices. A former soldier discusses toxin accumulation and contamination in Vietnam. Dr. Nguyen Thi Ngoc Phuong recalls a significant increase in birth defects and cancer.
Vietnam Microcosm (04:17)
New Zealand is one of the first countries to use 2,4,5-T to clear land; the toxins move through the food chain. An Oregon resident recalls helicopters spraying chemicals in 1975 and its impact on animals. Don Romanowich discusses chemical spills and high exposures.
Herbicide Application (04:51)
In the 1950s and 1960s, power companies use 2,4-D to control brush along power lines. Sidney Roger discusses water spray, dormant spray, and exposure. Joel Theriault discusses spraying for forest regeneration. Approximately 1% of northern Ontario receives chemical sprays every year.
Chemical Use in Oregon (04:52)
Carol Van Strum discusses herbicide spraying along roads and railways; concentrations are higher than aerial applications. Citizens should be concerned about visiting areas where spraying occurred. The British Columbia Ministry of Environment obtains a can of Black Flag herbicide that was purchased in 1964.
Images reveal the effects of the chemical on mustard; research links it to cancer. People have forgotten that 2,4-D is half of Agent Orange. Sample testing reveals increasing levels of dioxin; drift can cause exposure.
Generational Effects of Chemical Exposure (09:01)
Hoang Le Hang has high dioxin levels. His daughters have physical and developmental problems; his son dies in utero. New Zealand, Oregon, and Canada experience high rates of still births, birth defects, miscarriages, cancer, and other health problems.
Chemical Longevity (06:12)
Van Strum discusses herbicide use and discontinuation in Oregon. Dioxin remains present in Vietnam and Gagetown. A 2,4-D/2,4,5-T mixture has been sold internationally. Individuals reflect on information dissemination, the future, exposure studies, and culpability.
Credits; Orange Witness (01:19)
Credits; Orange Witness
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