Law of Return (01:52)
British laws limiting immigration were abolished after the creation of Israel. Jews could become citizens by immigrating to the new country; 100,000 arrived in the first six months. (Credits)
Operation Magic Carpet (03:27)
Yemenite Jews became the targets of Arab protests and more than 45,000 were brought to Israel. Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion's administration implemented austerity measures that led to protests.
Waves of Refugees (04:39)
The situation for Jews in Arab and Muslim countries deteriorated, and over 600,000 sought refuge in Israel. The rapid influx caused logistical problems and European Jews looked down on new arrivals from the Middle East.
Violent Backlash (02:16)
Israel grew by 10% in a few years, but the country faced Arab reprisals. Col. Gamal Abdel Nasser seized power in Egypt and closed the Suez Canal to Israeli ships, culminating in the second Arab-Israeli War.
Adolf Eichmann Tried (02:16)
The Suez expedition was a fiasco that raised Nasser's profile in the region. In May 1960, Ben-Gurion announced the capture of Eichmann, whose trial served as collective therapy for Israelis.
New Israel Prime Minister (03:08)
Ben-Gurion retired from public life in 1963 and chose Levi Eshkol as his successor. He and other leaders believed the Palestinians would eventually move on and forget the trauma of losing their land.
Palestinian Liberation Organization (04:31)
Ahmad al-Shukeiri became the first leader of the PLO; the group believed armed conflict was the solution to problems with Israel. Fedayeen engaged in a wave of attacks that undermined Israeli morale.
Increasing Tension (04:21)
Israel and Egypt exchanged fighting words through songs. Eshkol feared starting a war without a green light from the United States.
Six-Day War (04:28)
Israeli forces destroyed over 400 Egyptian planes on June 5, 1967, followed by a land offensive. The Israelis won, but historians disagreed about whether they had faced an existential threat or a bluff.
Battle of Jerusalem (03:06)
Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Dayan decided to advance into the West Bank and Syrian Golan without the approval. Israel annexed 71 square kilometers east of Jerusalem.
Occupied Territory (05:51)
Conflict resulted in Israel's growth to 102,000 square kilometers. A wave of religious nationalism ensued from the conquest of the old city. New refugees magnified already existing problems; Israeli occupation would last decades.
Solidarity Charter (03:34)
Arab countries met in Khartoum to sign the charter that called for reclamation of territory lost in the Six-Day War. In Israel, religious militants saw victory as a sign the Messiah would return and began settling in occupied territory.
Military Occupation (08:26)
In 1969, Yasser Arafat became the leader of the PLO and Golda Meir became prime minister of Israel. Occupying forces began expelling Palestinians from their land and building colonies at the beginning of the 1970s.
Credits: Israel: A Twice Promised Land, Part II (00:50)
Credits: Israel: A Twice Promised Land, Part II
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