The Stuarts (02:30)
James Francis Stuart landed in Scotland with his Jacobite supporters on December 22, 1715 to reclaim the throne. He had been living in exile for 30 years. The return marked a turning point in British history.
State of the Crown (07:59)
The Stuarts ruled Scotland for centuries but had only been ruling Protestant England and Ireland since 1603. With James Francis Stuart’s birth as King James II’s heir in 1688, tensions rose as the Protestant countries worried they would be forever under Catholic rule. Many supported William and Mary of Orange.
Stuarts in France (04:57)
The Stuarts found refuge with French King Louis XIV, a Catholic who promised to help King James II reclaim his throne. Their palace became a command center for the Jacobites, which included a propaganda campaign to create nostalgic feelings about the Stuarts' reign.
Change in Britain (04:41)
The ruling Whigs in Parliament used the overthrow in 1688 to create a Bill of Rights and give the body more control in the government. King William agreed since he was only focused on getting a strong enough military to fight King Louis XIV of France. King James II died in 1701 and 12-year-old James Francis became the focus for the Jacobites.
Scottish Resentment (04:14)
King William died in a riding accident and was succeeded by Queen Anne, who did not have an heir. Parliament passed the Act of Union to make England, Ireland, and Scotland a unified kingdom to stop an uprising in Scotland. It backfired and strengthened the Jacobites and James’ ambitions to take the throne.
Failed Jacobite Invasion (02:41)
In 1708, James and a fleet of French ships sailed for Scotland but ran into numerous delays on the way. The delays allowed for government troops to reach the coast to meet them. Knowing the uprising could not work, James and his fleet returned to France.
Government Shakeup (08:09)
Queen Anne's government had been surprised by the planned Jacobite invasion. The Tories were gaining power in Parliament and blamed the Duke of Marlborough, a Whig military leader, for not predicting the uprising. Marlborough, who had served King James II, was impeached and began showing allegiance to the Jacobites.
The Next Monarch (02:39)
The Treaty of Urecht between France and England forced James to move to Lorraine. Some Tories supported his return as Queen Anne's heir, but the remaining Tories and the Whigs were supporting other possibilities. Queen Anne died in 1714 and George I, of the Hanoverians, became king.
Rising Jacobite Support (03:29)
The British people and the Tories began to oppose George I and turned their support to the Jacobites. James was calling for a divided England and Scotland and religious tolerance throughout the kingdom. James organized another rebellion.
1715 Jacobite Rebellion (06:55)
In 1715, James and his French backers were gaining support as rebellion spread through Britain. The Duke of Mar began organizing troops in Scotland and began marching south. Tories in northern England organized as well and planned to meet the approaching Scottish army at Newcastle.
Jacobite Defeat (10:28)
James left France with plans to join the large Jacobite army in Perth. The Hanoverian government sent an army north, which met the Jacobites in Sheriffmuir. James arrived after the Jacobites in Scotland and England had been defeated.
Credits: Rebellion: The Stuarts In Exile: Episode 1 (00:20)
Credits: Rebellion: The Stuarts In Exile: Episode 1
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