Rose's Story (02:29)
Rose Arp is a deli bakery manager in South Dakota and will turn 50. Dr. Louis Papa distinguishes health screening tests from symptom-driven testing. He would ask about her family history; her family has thyroid issues but is otherwise healthy.
Goal of Cancer Screening (04:43)
Rose has been recommended mammograms and a colonoscopy. Such screenings aim to reduce cancer death, rather than to increase survival rates. Hear why efforts to find cancer early have exposed uncertainty about the definition of cancer.
Breast Cancer Screening (05:16)
Panelists discuss how advanced imaging finds abnormalities and false positives. Recommendations vary between health organizations. Mammography works better for women past 50 and only reduces risk of death for women in their 40s by 20%.
Cervical Cancer Screening (02:24)
Panelists recommend women get pap smears every few years. Rose had laser surgery for an abnormality with lasting side effects. Papa says primary care physicians must depend on expert consensus. DNA testing is a new alternative to pap smears.
Colon Cancer Screening (03:53)
European research shows annual stool blood tests reduce death risk more than colonoscopy. Rose had a polyp years ago. Dr. Otis Brawley recommends a stool blood test, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy after 50; frequencies depend on findings.
Lung Cancer Screening (03:20)
Smoking dramatically increases risk of death. Medical guidelines are to undergo CT screening over 55 if the patient has smoked for 30 pack years and has been smoking within the past 15 years. Cancer screening can turn people into patients.
Second Opinion 5 (02:13)
Dr. David Dougherty says the five main risks for cancer include tobacco, being overweight, excess sun exposure, infections, and alcohol use.
Credits: Preventative Cancer Screening—Second Opinion (01:12)
Credits: Preventative Cancer Screening—Second Opinion
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