Birth of France (03:10)
France, England, and Germany possess strong cultural identities and customs. Three landmark events contributed to the creation of the French Kingdom: the Queen of Francs marrying the Count of Anjou, King Richard I shot by a crossbow, and the Battle of Bouvines. The feudal system originates during the Middle Ages.
Memory of Humanity (03:09)
Compare a democratic and feudal system. England, the Holy Roman Empire, and France dominate Europe. Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou and dowers a quarter of France's territory.
Richard the Lionheart (03:04)
During the Middle Ages, England is ruled by Norman Kings who speak French; King Richard called himself "Coeur de Lion" and considered himself a vassal of France. The king of England opposes King Phillip II unifying the duchies into a homogenous kingdom.
King Phillip II Attacks (03:20)
King John unites with King Otto IV to trap King Phillip II. Phillip divides his army to combat the two opponents. Learn how knights pledge their allegiance to a lord.
Battle of Bouvines (05:42)
Learn about the strategy France employed to drive back King Otto and John's troops. German soldiers surround Phillip; French soldiers fight back and defeat its enemies.
Turning Point in History (03:24)
If King Phillip died at the Battle of Bouvines, England would have absorbed the remaining duchies. Kings know that they or their sons may die during a war; compare strategies employed during the Middle Ages and modern tactics. King Phillip can impose his vision of France because he fought nobly.
The power of the Baron is transferred to the king, uniting the duchies of France. By marrying Henry, Eleanor of Aquitaine grants England the lands that Phillip conquered. The Hundred Year's War follows.
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