Introduction to Psychopharmacology (20:17)
Tom Smith is a psychologist and pharmacist, but will not perform both roles for a client. He was trained by Carl Rogers and was a Professor of Advanced Pharmacology at the St. Louis University School of Graduate Nursing. Smith shares some history and basic background of psychopharmacology.
Neurotransmitters: Part One (13:22)
Smith talks about the metabolic processes that are crucial to psychopharmacology. Smith examines the biochemical pathways the body uses to produce neurotransmitters.
Neurotransmitters: Part Two (10:10)
Smith examines the biochemical pathways the body uses for neurotransmitter production. Dopamine is a crucial neurotransmitter. Smith demonstrates his belief in why it is the most important chemical in our brains.
Fight or Flight Response (14:48)
Smith discusses chemical precursors to neurotransmitters in the body and chemical similarities between important neurotransmitters. He explains what happens in the brain when a human is face to face with a saber-toothed tiger.
Therapeutic Response (22:15)
Smith explains the action of nerves and illustrates how nerve messages pass through the body via neurotransmitters. Enzymes in the synaptic space recycle neurotransmitters after they send messages; most mental illness medications act on this recycling process. Smith explains the difference between agonist and antagonist drugs in the body.
Diagnoses and Therapy (14:27)
Smith explains the new changes in the DSM-5 and how disorders are no longer age-related in the diagnostic process. See examples of diagnostic changes and pharmacological solutions for certain disorders.
Medication Compliance (22:43)
Medication compliance is important for positive therapeutic responses to pharmacological interventions. Smith gives an example of a drug questionnaire and explains how clinicians can use them to improve compliance. Learn some of the "new" drug approvals coming from the FDA.
Drug Questionnaire (26:53)
Smith continues his explanation of the importance of the drug questionnaire for informed pharmacological intervention. He discusses side effects and common drug interactions.
Depression as a Mental Disorder (17:11)
Smith talks about the psychological diagnosis of depression and the common classes of drugs used to treat depressive disorders. Learn the chemistry behind some common drugs used to treat depression.
FDA Drug Approval (16:42)
The FDA is approving 'new' drugs; they are existing drugs being approved for new uses. Smith examines the dangers in drug interactions and contraindications with these new approvals and particularly with drugs approved for over-the-counter sale. Drugs may be approved for certain uses even though the exact mechanism of their effect is not well-understood.
Drug Classes and Mechanisms (19:33)
Smith discusses Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors; serotonin may not be involved in depressive disorders as previously thought. Smith explains the phenomenon of stereoisomerism and its import to prescription drugs.
Anti-Depressant Mechanisms (16:15)
Smith talks about the approval process for drugs to treat depression and how some of the FDA approvals can be misleading. Some drug manufacturers' claims can be inaccurate and unscientific. Smith talks about the inability to separate controlling neurotransmitter levels and hormone levels.
Intestinal and Gut Health (14:31)
There is a strong link between health in the gut, serotonin production in the intestines, and mental health disorders such as depression. Smith discusses drugs that are approved for treating libido and sexual dysfunction and the unknown mechanisms they rely on.
SNRI Class Drugs (23:36)
Smith examines drugs and their chemical similarities. Drug companies extend patents by asking the FDA for new usage approvals using common antipsychotic drugs. Smith discusses new trends in genetic testing and pharmacogenics for targeting drug usage.
Wellbutrin and MAOIs (14:33)
Wellbutrin is used as an antidepressant; it has a chemical similarity to banned diet drugs. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are more commonly used in certain treatment regimes. MAOI's can be abused by people seeking a high as they create artificially high levels of dopamine.
Side Effects and Risk Factors (16:15)
Learn some of the most common and problematic side effects of antidepressants and mental health drugs. Smith highlights the importance of knowing what herbal substances patients might be taking that can cause undesirable drug interactions and discusses treatment resistant depression and possible therapies.
Bipolar Disorder and Mania (19:06)
Smith discusses the "AAAX" medications and debunks the idea of a class of mood stabilizing drugs. Many "mood stabilizers" are drugs that have various effects on neurotransmitters and GABA in particular. Smith explains common drug usage for the treatment of bipolar disorder.
Smith examines the similarities between drug classes used to treat anxiety disorders. Learn about some of the drugs prescribed for sleep disorders and the negative side effects.
Smith talks about the drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. See an aggregation of scientific studies relating to schizophrenia treatment and long-term antipsychotic usage.
ADHD Disorder (18:33)
Smith presents the typical drugs used to treat attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders and highlights the similarities to antidepressant drugs. These treatment regimens affect the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Alzheimer's Disease and Conclusion (17:31)
Smith talks about new research into the mechanisms and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and drugs used to treat it. Psychedelic drugs are increasingly used to treat mental illnesses. Smith talks about new drugs that may be used for abusive behaviors.
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